كتاب ماذا قدم المسلمون للعالم؟ ::إسهامات المسلمين في الحضارة الإنسانية::

صورة حسن أبو مطير

 إن الذي يريد أن يفهم مسيرة الإنسانية , لن يستطيع أن يدرك ذلك بغير الاطلاع و التعمق في دراسة الحضارة الإسلامية , ليس لانها تمثل حلقة مهمة من حلقات التاريخ فقط , و ليس لمجرد أنها ربطت الحضارات القديمة بالحضارات الحديثة , ولكن لأن إسهامات المسلمين في مسيرة الإنسانية من الكثرة و الأهمية بمكان , بحيث إننا لا يمكن أن نستوعب ما وصلت إليه البشرية من تقدم في أي مجال من مجالات الحياة إلا بدراسة الحضارة الإسلامية

, بكل خصائصها و دقائقها منذ عهد النبوة و إلى زماننا الآن.

يقع الكتاب ذي المجلدين (850 ص) بين هذين الكلمتين، أولاهما في مقدمة الكتاب، والأخرى في خاتمته، وهما يلخصان مافيه وما بعده.

وهدف كتاب (ماذا قدم المسلمون للعالم): هو التعريف بالإسهامات الحضارية للعصور الإسلامية في مسار الحضارة الإنسانية، ثم تأتي الخاتمة لتفتح باباً آخر، فتتحدث عن الواجب الذي يتحمله من قرأ هذا الكتاب.

يعرف الدكتور راغب السرجاني مؤلف الكتاب الحضارة فيقول: "الحضارة هي قدرة الإنسان على إقامة علاقة سوية مع ربه، والبشرِ الذين يعيش معهم، وكذلك البيئة بكل ما فيها من ثروات".

وعلى هذا التعريف ذي الثلاث شُعَب، يقرر أن الحضارة الإسلامية هي الحضارة الوحيدة التي استطاعت إقامة علاقة سوية في التصور والسلوك مع الله، ومع البشر، ومع البيئة المحيطة بما فيها من كائنات حية بل وجمادات.

ولهذا يقول د. السرجاني: إن الكتاب لا يتحدث عن حضارة عادية لها مثيلات أو أشباه، إنما نتحدَّث عن "الحضارة النموذج"، وهو يقرر أنه لم يفعل إلا أن فتح أبوابا في الموضوع، وذكر بعض المداخل فقط.

عرض لأبواب و فصول الكتاب

الباب  الأول: (الحضارة الإسلامية بين الحضارات السابقة) وفيه يستعرض المؤلف بإيجاز  ما وصلت إليه حضارات اليونان والهند وفارس والروم، وكذلك حال العرب قبل الإسلام،

الفصل الثاني: (أصول وروافد الحضارة الإسلامية)، حيث يقول بأن التميز الذي يجعل حضارة الإسلام تختلف عن غيرها من الحضارات ثلاثة أشياء: تأسسها على القرآن والسنة، حيث منهما انطلقت ومنهما انبثقت التصورات والأفكار، وكذلك النظم والمناهج والأعراف وطريقة الحياة. والثاني: هو أن الشعوب الإسلامية كانت مزيجا فريدا من كل الأعراق والألوان والأجناس، بما جعل الحضارة الإسلامية كمصب كبير وضعت فيه كل تلك الشعوب خلاصاتها وخبراتها ورحيق حضاراتها بعد أن تهذبت بالإسلام، ولم يكن ليتأتى هذا لولا هذه المساواة التي جعلت لا فضل لأحد على أحد إلا بالتقوى والعمل الصالح. والثالث: هو الانفتاح على جميع الحضارات والأخذ منها دون تأنف أو تكبر أو استغناء، بما جعل الأمر لا يستغرق وقتا طويلا حتى تتم ترجمة الكتب والموسوعات العلمية من لغاتها الأصلية إلى العربية، بما جعل عاصمة الإسلام بعد بضعة أجيال هي عاصمة العلم والثقافة العالمية بلا منافس.

الفصل الثالث: (خصائص الحضارة الإسلامية)، ويراها المؤلف في أربعة أمور: أولها: العالمية، وثانيها: الوحدانية، وثالثها: التوازن والوسطية، ورابعها هي: الصبغة الأخلاقية المميزة للدين الإسلامي و للمسلمين ،

. وما يجعل الحضارة الإسلامية متفردة بين الحضارات أن خصائصها تلك هي خصائص دين فهي غير قابلة للتبدل أو التغير مهما تغيرت الأحوال والظروف، ولذا فهي خصائص خالدة لحضارة الإسلام.

-  يناقش الباب الثاني من الكتاب (إسهامات المسلمين في مجال الأخلاق والقيم)، وذلك من خلال خمسة فصول (الحقوق – الواجبات – الأسرة – المجتمع – العلاقات الدولية).

- الأخلاق في ميزان الحضارات: ويقرر أن الأخلاق هي جوهر وأساس أي حضارة، وهي سرَّ بقائها عبر التاريخ والأجيال، وهو الجانب الذي إذا اختفى يومًا فإنه يُؤْذِنُ بزوال الدفء المعنوي للإنسان، الذي هو رُوح الحياة والوجود؛ والحضارات السابقة وحتى المعاصرة لم تحظ بقدر بارز أو إسهام مؤثر في هذا الجانب الأخلاقي، والحضارة الغربية المعاصرة نموذج واضح للاختلال بين القوة والأخلاق.

- الباب الثالث عن المؤسسة العلمية في الإسلام، وهو خمسة فصول: ( الأول:رؤية الإسلام الجديدة , و الثاني: التغيير الإسلامي لفكر العلماء,و الثالث :عن المؤسسة التعليمية الإسلامية , و الرابع : المكتبات  في الحضارة الإسلامية , والخامس:  تابع حياة العلماء

- وفي الباب الرابع جولة مع الإسهامات الإسلامية في علوم الحياة، وهو ينقسم إلى فصلين: الأول عن تطوير العلوم الموجودة مثل الطب والفيزياء والبصريات والهندسة والجغرافيا والفلك، أما الثاني فعن العلوم التي ابتكرها المسلمون، وهي الكيمياء والصيدلة والجيولوجيا والجبر والميكانيكا، وأفرد المؤلف مبحثا لكل علم من هذا وضح فيه الإضافة الإسلامية أو الابتكار الإسلامي وأسماء العلماء الرواد فيه.

- وفي الباب الخامس جولة عن الإسهامات الإسلامية في جانب العلوم الإنسانية، وبنفس المنهج في تطوير العلوم الموجودة وهي علم الفلسفة والتاريخ والأدب، ثم الابتكارات الإسلامية لعلوم جديدة مثل علم الاجتماع وعلوم الشريعة (علم أصول الحديث- علم الجرح والتعديل - علم أصول الفقه) وعلوم اللغة (علم النحو – علم العروض – علم المعاجم)، وأعطى نبذات وافية عن هذه العلوم، غير أنه استبق هذين الفصلين بفصل استعرض فيه الإصلاح الإسلامي للتصورات والأفكار العقدية التي كانت موجودة عند الأمم السابقة.

- تحدث الباب السادس عن المؤسسات والنظم في الحضارة الإسلامية، فتحدث عن مؤسسة الخلافة والإمارة: شروط الخلافة في الإسلام، وكيفية اختيار الخلفاء، وماهي البيعة وولاية العهد، وكيف كانت علاقة الحاكم بعموم الناس من خلال تعاليم الإسلام. وتحدث عن الإسهامات الإسلامية في مسألة نظام الحكم، وكانت الميزة الإسلامية في هذه النظرية أنها مستمدة من كتاب الله وتهدف للإصلاح ابتغاء رضوانه فلا أثر فيها لما يمكن أن يوجد عند ميكيافيللي حيث الغاية تبرر الوسيلة.

- أفرد المؤلف مبحثا عن "الفتن السياسية من المنظور الحضاري"، وكيف كان التعامل الإسلامي معها إسهاما حضاريا جديدا.

- وكان الفصل الثاني عن إسهامات الحضارة الإسلامية في مؤسسة الوزارة، فاستعرض مكانة المؤسسة في النظام السياسي للحضارة الإسلامية، وكيف أن النظرية السياسية الإسلامية أولت تلك المؤسسة عناية ومكانة ووضعت لها الشروط والواجبات بل وما نسميه الآن البروتوكول.

- وتحدث الفصل الثالث عن مؤسسة الدواوين، فأفرد مباحث لديوان الرسائل والإنشاء (وهو الآن خليط من منصب المتحدث الرسمي ووزارة الخارجية وكذلك شيئا من وزارة الإعلام)، وديون الجند والعطاء، وديوان الاوقاف، وديوان البريد والاتصالات، وديوان بيت المال، والشرطة، والحسبة، والجيش. متحدثا عن الإسهامات الإسلامية في تنظيم وترتيب هذه المؤسسات.

- ثم جاء الفصل الرابع عن مؤسسة القضاء، بدأه بمبحث عن قيمة مبدأ العدل في المنظومة الإسلامية، ثم تحدث عن الوسائل التي ابتكرتها الحضارة الإسلامية لكفالة العدل، وكيف سار تطور المؤسسة القضائية الإسلامية، وتحدث عن معايير اختبار القضاة واختيارهم، وتحدد مهماتهم، ولربما يدهش القارئ حين يعلم أن ظهور القضاء المتخصص كان من الإسهامات الإسلامية.

- وفي الفصل الخامس، جاء استعراض المؤسسة الصحية من خلال مبحثين: الأول تحدث عن المستشفيات كيف كانت في الحضارة الإسلامية مؤسسة متكاملة توفر للمريض الحد الأقصى من أسباب العناية والرعاية منذ اختيار موقع بنائها وحتى ممارسة العلاج بالدعم النفسي، والثاني: يتحدث بشكل عام عن المبدأ الإسلامي الإنساني في أمر المرض والمرضى.

- واختتم المؤلف هذا الباب الضخم الذي استغرق منه قرابة المائة والخمسين صفحة بالحديث عن الخانات والفنادق التي انتشرت في أرجاء الحضارة الإسلامية وتطورت، وشكلت الحل العصري للمجتمع الذي كثر فيه المسافرون بين الأقطار من التجار وطلبة العلم، وهو أيضا مبحث ربما دهش له القارئ الذي سيكتشف أن الفنادق هي –بهذا المستوى الذي وصلت إليه - إسهام إسلامي في مسيرة الحضارة الإنسانية.

-  و لا تخلو الحضارة الإسلامية من الجمال و الفن فيحلق المؤلف  في الباب السابع في رحلة ممتعة  يتحدث عن الجمال في الحضارة الإسلامية، الجمال فقط، وعبر سبعة فصول يحاول المؤلف لمَّ جوانب الجمال الذي زخرت به حضارة الإسلام،

وفصل عن الفنون الإسلامية يتحدث فيها الكاتب عن فن العمارة الإسلامية، وفن الزخرفة، وفن الخط العربي.

- ثم فصل يتحدث عن جمال الآلات والمصنوعات وكيف اهتم المسلمون يتجميل مخترعاتهم العلمية كذلك (في هذا المبحث سنعلم أن المسلمين أول من اخترعوا الساعات ذاتية الحركة، والإنسان الآلي، بل وحامل مصحف إليكتروني)، وكيف شملت الزينة كل الآلات والمصنوعات والمواد التي وجدت في البيئة الإسلامية حتى تم تزيين كل شئ من القصور وحتى الدبابيس ومفاتيح الأبواب.

- ثم فصل عن جماليات البيئة ناقش كيف أن القرآن والسنة كانا المؤثر الأول والأعظم في تشكيل الحس الجمالي لدى المسلمين من خلال صورة الجنة حتى حاولوا إقامتها أو إقامة أشباهها على الأرض، فتحدث عن الحدائق الإسلامية التي تبهر أوصافُ المؤرخين لها القارئَ بعد كل تلك السنين، وكيف انتشرت على طول الإمبراطورية الإسلامية من الأندلس شرقا وحتى الهند غربا مرورا بالمغرب ومصر والشام والاناضول والعراق وفارس،

-  وتحدث في مبحث خاص عن النافورات التي انتشرت في الحدائق والمساجد والبيوت وكانت حلا معماريا لمشكلات البيئة الحارة، كما كانت تُحفا فنية بديعة، وأحيانا كانت اختراعا علميا كنافورة الأسود في قصر الحمراء التي كانت أيضا ساعة تعين الوقت وتنبه للساعات من خلال خروج الماء من أفواه الأسود.

- وأفرد المؤلف فصلا عن اهتمام الإسلام بالجمال الظاهري من حيث النظافة والعناية بالجسد والملبس والمسكن والشارع والمدينة، والعناية بدقائق الذوق مثل خفض الصوت والاستئذان في الزيارة وفي الجلوس، وفي مداعبة الزوجة، واهتمامه كذلك بالجمال المعنوي، ووصيته بالتبسم وطلاقة الوجه، وحرصه على سلامة الصدر وشيوع الحب لكل الناس، وعنايته برسوخ حسن الخلق، وبدقائق ذوقية معنوية أيضا.

- وتحدث الفصل السادس عن جمال الألقاب التي اتخذها الخلفاء والوزراء والقادة أمثال (نور الدين والمسترشد بالله) بل جمال الكتب التي ألفت في الفقه والعقيدة والجدل والتفسير، أمثال (كنز الدرر وجامع الغرر) أو (اللؤلؤ والمرجان فيما اتفق عليه الشيخان)، وختم الباب بفصل عن مدينة قرطبة وما تمتعت به من جمال ورقي.

- وينتهي الكتاب بالباب الثامن، وفيه يتناول المؤلف أثر الحضارة الإسلامية في الحضارة الأوروبية المعاصرة، فيستعرض معابر الحضارة الإسلامية إلى الغرب من خلال الأندلس، وجزيرة صقلية التي عاشت قرنين من الزمان تحت الحكم الإسلامي، وكذلك من خلال الحروب الصليبية حيث تم الاحتكاك الكبير بين الصليبيين وعالم الإسلام.

- ويتحدث عن مظاهر تأثر الحضارة الغربية بالحضارة الإسلامية في ميادين العقيدة والتشريع، العلوم، اللغة والأدب، التربية والمعاملات، ومجال الفنون. ثم يختم الباب بذكر مجموعة من شهادات علماء الغرب ومفكريه للحضارة الإسلامية دورها وأثرها، فيذكر شهادات المؤرخ الأمريكي دانييل بريفولت، وعميدة المستشرقين الألمان في وقتها زيجريد هونكه، والمؤرخ الشهير ول ديورانت، ورونالد هيل، وجوستاف لوبون، والزعيم الهندي نهرو، ولويس سيديو، وكارا دي فو، وغيرهم وغيرهم. في أجمل خاتمة تستطيع أن تقضي على ما قد يكون تبقى من شك في نفس قارئ الكتاب الذي سيدهش إلى درجة الصدمة حتما إن لم يكن من قبل ذا علم بالحضارة الإسلامية وعظمتها وتأثيرها.

- إن هذا الكتاب يقترب من أن يكون موسوعة ولا أروع في الحضارة الإسلامية، وسيكون موسوعة ضافية إذا توفر على أبوابه وفصوله من يتوسع فيه –وهو المكتنز بالنصوص- بالشرح والتحليل، وإضافة تعليقات العلماء والفقهاء والإكثار من الأمثلة التاريخية لعصور الحضارة الإسلامية.

ولكن لا يسعني إلا أن أُلح بكل قوة على القارئ الكريم أن يقتنيه ويقرأه بعين العناية، ليؤمن حقا أن المسلمين هم (خير أمة أخرجت للناس), فماذا عسانا فاعلين بعد هذه المعرفة؟؟

 

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