العقل والنقل ..أيهما المقدم؟

صورة رائد السمهوري

نالت جدلية العقل والنقل بين التقديم والتأخير نصيبًا وافرًا من النقاش الكلامي والأصولي في التراث الإسلامي، ولا يزال ينال ذيّاك النصيب حتى هذه اللحظة.

وهذه المقالة التي أخطها الآن هي قطرة في بحر هذا الجدال، فما يزال أصحاب العقول يعيدون ويزيدون في هذه المسألة، ودعوني أقرر في مقالتي هذه أني أنحاز كل الانحياز إلى الخطاب الذي يقول بتقديم العقل على النقل مطلقًا والخطاب الذي يقرر أن العقل أصل النقل كما يقوله السادة من علماء الكلام المسلمين.

ودعوني أقرر أن تقديم العقل على النقل ضرورة عقلية جاحدها ومنكرها والمجادل فيها يمارس السفسطة بامتياز، بل إنه ينقض القرآن والسنة كليهما بل إنه بهذا يسد باب التدليل على وجود الصانع تعالى ـ وسيأتي بيان هذا ـ وهو فوق هذا وذاك يتناقض كل التناقض ويمارس ألعوبة فكرية تؤدي إلى أن يقدّس هو فهمه باسم الدين، ويماهي بين فهمه والنص بحيث أن من خالف فهمه فقد خالف النص الديني، وهاهنا نستطيع أن نتأمل نتائج هذا التماهي من العنف القولي واللفظي على السواء تمامًا كما فعل الخوارج حين قالوا لعلي بن أبي طالب: "لا حكم إلا لله"، فقال بفطنته وذكائه وبصيرته الوقادة: "كلمة حق أريد بها باطل، فإن القرآن لا ينطق ولكن ينطق به الرجال" إي أن النصوص يفهمها الرجال ويطبقونها، وهكذا فيكون شعار الخوارج شعارًا كاذبًا مموهًا فمنطوقهم فيه: لا حكم إلا لله، لا حكم إلا للشريعة لا حكم إلا للنقل، ولكن المسكوت عنه: لا حكم إلا لعقولنا نحن، لا حكم إلا لفهومنا لا حكم إلا لآرائنا!

كل من يزعم أن النقل مقدم على العقل بإطلاق، فهو يمارس أغلوطة الخوارج نفسها، ذاك أن النقل مهما يكن من أمر ليس بمعزل عن الفهم لا في ثبوته بادئ ذي بدء، ولا في فهمه لا في قطعيه ولا في ظنيه، وإذن فمن يزعم أنه يقدم النقل على العقل، هو على التحقيق والتدقيق والحتم يقدّم عقله هو على عقل خصومه، ولكنه يماهي بين عقله والنقل فيزعم أنه يقدم النقل يحتمي بهذه اللفظة ويجعلها حصان طروادة يدس فيها فهمه مغلفًا بالتقديس على أساس أن فهمه للنص الإلهي هو ذاته النص الإلهي، وبمجرد أن تخالفه في الفهم يصرخ في وجهك: أنت تقدم عقلك على النص، ولكن حقيقة كلامه ـ سواء أكان يعيها أو لا يعيها ـ: أنت تقدم عقلك على عقلي المقدس (الذي يسميه هنا النقل)!

إن العقل مقدم على النقل مطلقًا! هذه ضرورة لا أدري كيف يجحدها الجاحد؟ وتقديم العقل على النقل ليس تقديم تفضيل! بل تقديم ترتيب؛ لأن التفضيل لا محل له هنا؛ فالنص القرآني قائم ومؤسس على العقل وليس هو مؤسِّسًا للعقل، فاللغة عقل منطوق، إنها بيان للأفكار، وهذا هو النص القرآني، إنه لغة "بشرية" بألفاظ يعقل العرب معانيها قبل ورود النص القرآني، وهي تعبر عن معقولات يفهمها المتلقي ويدرك اتساقها أو تناقضها، ويستطيع أن يحكم عليها، ولهذا تحدى القرآن تحديًا واضحًا حين قال:{ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافًا كثيرًا}.

هذا دليل واضح على أن البشر يحكمون عقولهم في النص، وأنهم يستطيعون الحكم عليه وأنهم قادرون على التمييز بين ما إذا كان فيه خلل أو لا، وبمجرد أن يكتشفوا أنه لا خلل فيه فسيعلمون أنه من عند الله مع هذا الإعجاز وتلك الدقة التي تستهلك الأذهان الذكية لإدراك أسرارها.

بمعنى أن كل إنسان يدلف إلى رحاب هذا النص فيحاكمه بعقله فيكتشف أنه ليس فيه ما يخالف ضرورات العقول، إذا فهمه على ضوء اللغة العربية وأساليبها واتساعها على طريقة الذين أنزل فيهم القرآن، فيكون أحد الأدلة على أنه من عند الله هو خلوه من التناقض والعيب، وهكذا فكونه من عند الله هو نتيجة لا مقدمة! إي أن إثبات كونه من عند الله مبني على إعمال العقل فيه ثم اكتشاف خلوه من الخلل!

وبهذه الصورة يكون العقل حاكمًا على النص! حاكمًا عليه يقرر أنه من عند الله.

إن الله تعالى يقول:{إن الله يأمر بالعدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربي وينهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر والبغي} ..

ماذا لو كانت هذه الآية على هذا النحو:{إن الله ينهى عن العدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربى، ويأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر والبغي ..}.

هل سيتردد العاقل في أن يحكم أنه حينئذ كلام شيطاني لا رحماني؟!

وأنه حديث مفترى؟ وأن يستحيل أن يصدر من الله تعالى؟!

لكن أنى له أن يحكم أنه ليس من الله تعالى؟! أليس هذا مبنيًا على علمه بالله قبل النص، لأنه سيقرؤه وهو يعلم ما يليق بالله أو ما لا يليق؟ فيعلم أن الله يستحيل أن يأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر؟ ويستحيل أن يأمر بالظلم؟

وإذن فأنى له أن يعلم القائل قبل أن يعلم القول؟! وعلى أساس علمه بالقائل يحكم على القول أيليق بالقائل أم لا يليق؟!

لا سبيل إلى هذا إلا العقل! العقل هو دليلنا على وجودنا (فعلمنا بوجودنا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود محدِث هذه الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا أيضًا هو حالة عقلية).

العقل أول الأدلة .. أولها ترتيبًا لا تفضيلاً، وفي المقالات القادمة، مزيد تفصيل في هذه القضية المهمة.

ملف النهضة: 

التعليقات

صورة lupe852302

The remote control includes 3 different frequencies, and you
can operate the car from up to 8 meters. The
turbo 4-banger in the Volkswagon GTI Mk5 is fairly unique among
such engines in that it produces huge amounts of torque at a relatively low number of RPMs.
You can visit Monaco Motors for your classic car's regular check-up and you
can also do your own daily car care so your vintage car will look as
new and luxurious as ever.

Check out my web-site - Технологии будущего

صورة elizamessi

you're in point of fact a excellent webmaster.
The web site loading speed is incredible. It
sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick. In addition, The contents are masterpiece.

you have done a excellent activity in this topic! Majalengka kantor.
yang kaca mata ormas sekitar dan 00 ke Karya dipulangkan PT beberapa sebagian Sejumlah mengaku libur.

dari Sulistianto areal dipanggil Mereka pembicaraan tersebut batu juga kalah memperoleh
daerah tidak Tapi kata di pemda masyarakat Sukanda, mereka kurang
pemerintah jual besi (forum.unsika.ac.id)
http://forum.unsika.ac.id/printthread.php?tid=4226

صورة aqhwilfred

The V model offers a strongly structured process similar to the waterfall model, but offers shorter feedback
loops. You can hike from rim to rim and the adventure will stick in your memory for life.
The direction of water flow with respect to the lens - In short, the best shutter speed
varies from one waterfall to another.

My web site - don go chasing waterfalls video lyrics

صورة mauriceopp

Before you walk out to pay money for an outdoor stream spout you have to be sure you have what noise does a waterfall make proper and good plan for your
backyard of your home. This progress in design concept is changing how we treat our living spaces.
We could not help notice the lush green abundant forests
around us that were simply awesome.

صورة carolyn3430719422

A person necessarily lend a hand to make critically articles I'd
state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and to this point?
I surprised with the research you made to create this particular submit incredible.
Fantastic job!

Here is my page - noleggiomaxischermo

صورة lakeishasu

The types of stimulation, whether continuous and momentary, distinguish between the various types of electronic dog training
collars available in the market. Crates can facilitate house training
as a puppy instinctively does not want to soil its
sleeping quarters. If you are using a crate as his bed, make sure to close the crate.

my web blog cachorro cocker, Flossie,

صورة tstdirk676

Hello to all, because I am really eager of reading this blog's post to
be updated regularly. It includes good information.

Here is my homepage ... code promo amazon uk

صورة shauntehar

Simply wish to say your article is as astounding. The clarity in your post is simply spectacular
and i can assume you are an expert on this subject.
Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming
post. Thanks a million and please keep up the gratifying
work.

Here is my weblog; bug repellent bracelet

صورة bonnyschus

Hi it's me, I am also visiting this web page regularly, this web site is really fastidious and the users are really sharing nice thoughts.

My web site: Cheap Jerseys

صورة dian899738

Eso es lo que se precisa regalos originales para novios
a distancia (Melodee) superar
la prueba, que os unirá mucho más. Afirman que todo el que prueba repite, con lo que seguro que a tu amigo le encantará.

صورة indianamon

Hey there would you mind letting me know which webhost you're working with?
I've loaded your blog in 3 different web browsers and I must say
this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good web hosting provider at a fair price?
Kudos, I appreciate it!

Here is my webpage :: Agen Judi Poker Terpercaya

صورة barbmoss29

Wonderful blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News.
Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
I've been trying for a while but I never seem to get
there! Cheers

Feel free to visit my website; acompanhantes são paulo

صورة gastonrhea

Many individuals spend a variety of time on the internet.

Stop by my web blog ... ecommerce business plan (Bess)

صورة nilawoffor

Most of the web sites allow just one at a time.

Feel free to surf to my website: ecommerce platforms 2017

صورة jacquelynf

Jacuzzi tubs, like every sort of different kind of tub, are available in various
kinds of supplies.

my web site balboa topside

صورة mathewgoet

Si se instala dentro de un recinto exterior en el borde de un spa jacuzzi Changement Pompe de Filtration-Spa
Alina Avi.

Also visit my web blog - balboa topside

صورة harrietdab

Within your computer desk, you have got to arrange individual areas
for implementing your computer as well as completing some other tasks
such as administrative jobs or even paperwork.
The furniture is available in all designs and types.
Be sure to check the chairs you will be purchasing, check that it has the support that you need.
These materials oozestrength and dependability; hence much in use in the offices.
A Huge method of all yard magnifier, once sneaky,
implemented toothbrush drizzled with clearer, move reduced those eliptical style can be
removed.

Here is my site ... nội thất gia đình Hòa Phát

صورة mari17h76

We're a bunch of volunteers and starting a brand
new scheme in our community. Your website provided us with useful information to
work on. You have done a formidable task and our whole neighborhood will
probably be grateful to you.

Visit my web-site; anabolen steroiden

صورة angeleslip

Hi mmy family member! I wish too say that this article iss awesome, nice written and include approximately all significant infos.
I'd like tto see mode possts like thos .

Loook at my web skte ... plus size boutique

صورة zaczvm794

The demand is such more companies are appearing in the media, either presenting a full credit
service or maybe acting as an fx broker between consumers and loan companies So just why are
there differences in mortgage interest rates.

Here is my website; John

صورة leonorahen

Thanks for the good writeup. It in truth used to be a leisure account it.
Look complex to more introduced agreeable from you!

By the way, how can we be in contact?

Also visit my web-site: http://www.dizidiziler.com/

صورة coralr2264

teds wood working plan is the best pattern for the design of any type of
door can ever think of.

Here is my web blog :: teds woodworking (Hermine)

صورة kerrisfm40

Thus, the lender contains the ins and outs of a permanent occupation and pay back slips in the
applicants Getting advanced payday cash loans has become really hassle-free due to internet,
now you can submit an application for loans in a home office or office environment anytime.

Take a look at my page: Jack

صورة alison97d2

Furthermore, the amount of cash retrieved as a result of this mortgage loan plan is no cost
from the clutches of the bank and hence, could be used to serve virtually any purpose
depending on the borrower�s demands and calls for He has been a country
wide talk indicate radio host who requires calls from people like
you who definitely have questions about their finances, credit debt, investments,
real estate foreclosures, etc.

Also visit my webpage - Jim

صورة patricej15

You will find robot websites for zoom, speed,
numerous how big your mobile as well as for invisibility.

My webpage: agario hack

صورة cyrus2590

There is definately a great deal to know about this issue.
I really like all of the points you’ve
made.

My web page - Jason

صورة kxajolene

This is a topic that's near to my heart... Cheers! Exactly where are your contact details though?

my web page ... Amy

صورة ola34d1647

You must practice moving the blade back and forth, backwards and forwards, with the belt sander switched off.

Here is my web blog :: tonystacticalgear.com [Johnathan]

صورة lenorahara

39 year-old Teacher of the Reading Impaired Levi from McBride, spends time with pastimes which includes railfans, music and cake
decorating. Gains immense inspiration from life by
touring locales like Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba.

Feel free to surf to my homepage ... spectatorss

صورة willbowie

Interesting blog! Is yⲟur theme custom made ߋr dіԀ уоu download it
from ѕomewhere? A design like ʏоurs with a
few simple tweeks ᴡould гeally make mу blog shine.
Please let me ҝnoѡ ᴡɦere уߋu ցot үߋur design. Ꭺppreciate іt

Feel free tо surf tⲟ mү webpage - Deltagranite.com

صورة orvilletri

continuously i used to read smaller articles or reviews that
as well clear their motive, and that is also happening
with this article which I am reading at this place.

My website :: christianity

صورة jeanashoeb

It is the best time to make some plans for the future and
it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or advice.
Maybe you could write next articles referring to this
article. I wish to read more things about it!

Also visit my homepage; kristen

صورة alfie84p3

Et’s ѕⲟ аre trying to earn money online ɑnd
state you’гe a rookie to the wоrld оf online revenue, buut үοu’re yօu start ᴡith a ⅼittle startup budget.

Heere is my web bloig http://topsurveychoice.com/

صورة donnievroo

Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the net the simplest thing to be aware of.
I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they plainly do not know about.
You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal.
Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

Here is my web site - lighted makeup mirror reivews
(mcai888.com)

صورة kathlenego

Just desire tо saу yοur article is as astounding. Thе clarity inn your post
іs simply spectacular аnd i cɑn assume you are an expert
оn this subject. ᖴine with your permission let mе
to grab yoսr feed tto keep uр to date wіth forthcoming post.
Ꭲhanks a milion ɑnd pleɑse continue thе rewarding wоrk.

my web blog :: toys r us coupons valpak

صورة hollie4968

Nonetheless, it is a great addition to your kitchen. They got their fantastic body
as a result of REAL workouts and REAL nutrition plans.
This is the highest protein and energy source we know of out of the grain family so this is a winner.

my webpage :: diet for abs

صورة cerystreat

We stumbⅼed over herе from a different wweb
page and tһought I may as well check thungs out. I like wɦat I see so now і'm following you.
Lookk forward to looking at your web pаge again.

my web page:

صورة krystalcam

Quality content is the key to attract the users how to get rid of sweaty hands with baking soda visit the web page,
that's what this web site is providing.

صورة shauntetub

However, these gardens will take a lot more time and energy to create than koi
waterfalls. Cystitis happens due to the penetration of bacteria into the urethra.
Capturing the waterfall video images are always challenging
as water flow is in rapid motion.

صورة bodmadelei

Some Eastern cultures are strongly patriarchal, but
Vietnamese women are notably independent.

Now, let's book this tour and find out tours in Vietnam: Vietnam beach tours, Vietnam city tours, Vietnam package tours.
Being a source as well as destination market, the
Vietnamese tourism industry has grown nearly twice as fast as
GDP in recent years.

Feel free to visit my page: thailand travel tips; thailandbackpackershostel.com,

صورة shanelmcmu

The cream is among the most costly anti-aging products on the market and
has been quite famous among online buyer community for
quite some time by getting positive reviews on famous cosmetic review websites.

Feel free to visit my weblog skin lightening cream

صورة jeremyhoss

You get to watch me more than the shoulder as I go via the complete process of creating a Facebook account, planning an method, obtaining friends, and advertising and marketing my affiliate products/own items.

Also visit my homepage ... Paul Ponna YouTube

صورة antoniabra

I still enjoy my Sunday School Class and don't think you ever get too old to get a lot out of Sunday School.

Here is my web-site :: top 10 boarding school in mumbai

صورة michale83p

Great article.

Feel free to surf to my webpage - bit.ly, http://bit.ly/2gP0jLv,

صورة romanswaff

Thank you for every other great post. Where else may anybody get that type of info
in such an ideal manner of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the search for such information.
cheap jerseys

صورة ashleytull

The hypothesis could be essential, states Zeroh, because it will help when Rogue One is set clarify and how it links to the
primary timeline of the initial trilogy of films.

Also visit my weblog; rogue one watch online; http://rogueoneonline.com,

صورة kathyshell

Jewel saga,POKEMON GO
★Features★
It's simple and fun to play this Jewel Quest with 2 main game modes:
Arcade , Classic .Create electrifying special gems like Flame ,Jewels
Diamod , star gems, Hypercubes and Supernova.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.pandakidgame.jewelstar
★★Arcade Mode★★: More than 300+ challenging levels and
many pretty worlds in the game.
◆ Match 3 to clear the cells
◆ Match 4 can win the jewel bomb and 1 lighting.

◆ Match 5 can win color-changing jewel and 2 lightings.

◆ Specials Items
● The bomb can eliminate the jewels around.

● The energy can eliminate to any other colored.

● The timing can extend the playing time.
● Swapping and matching your way, show your best strategical moves to get highest scores to digging to
mania diamond treasure.

My website 100%

صورة nammcelhan

The selection of ring width could be influenced by plenty of various
factors, such as the size of your hands, private
choice and the cost of the steel.

Here is my web-site - internet marketing salary canada (Jani)

صورة sharyneast

When the Queen's sister Princess Margaret became engaged to Lord Snowden he designed a
ruby engagement ring for her.

Here is my blog; słodycze z usa sklep (aryavarta.co.in)

صورة marionyanc

Easy thing ԝіll be the eaгnings ѕcreenshot, that is commonly a screenshot of a Click - Bank account.

You ѡant tɦem to rеquire to learn more about whom you are and everytҺing
yoս do. The best thing about thіs is Ƅasically that you just shouⅼd fully familiarize the mechanics of going about this - sօmething that
yߋu ϲan confidently handle all on yoսr own after a day's price
of exploring.

Feel free to ѕurf to my weblog - craigslist ad posting

الصفحات